A test tube is a plastic or glass instrument which is used in labs for contain and measure a liquid or a gas . It's about a transparent tube which includes a graduation so that the observer can know what volume the substance inside occupies.
Usually, the specimen has a base on which it rests, a closed lower end so that the content and an opening in the upper part. The specimens can measure different volumes according to their size.
The most frequent use of the specimens appears in the chemical analysis . The substance to be analyzed is housed in the test tube and thus can be measured. If high precision is required, there are others instruments more suitable, such as pipettes.
It is known as test tube baby , on the other hand, to the child born from the technique of in vitro fertilization . In these cases, the sperm fertilize the oocytes outside the body of the woman . What is done is to extract oocytes from the ovaries and then the fertilization takes place in a medium of liquid type. Once fertilized, the oocyte is taken back to the maternal uterus to develop until the time of delivery.
Louise brown it was the first test tube baby of the entire history . His birth came on July 25, 1978 in Oldham (England ), with a weight of 2.61 kilograms . In 2006 , Louise He gave birth to his first child, conceived naturally.
The in vitro fertilization It was originally developed to fight infertility cases related to disorders in the uterine tubas (also known as Fallopian tube, are muscular ducts that serve to connect the uterus and the ovaries) but over time began to compensate for other types of infertility. When the problem lies in man, one of the most successful techniques is the intracytoplasmic sperm injection , which consists, in a few words, in injecting a sperm into the cytoplasm of the oocytes through a micropipette.
To carry out this treatment It is necessary first of all to have healthy oocytes and a uterus in which a pregnancy can take place. Although in some countries the social health services cover the expenses necessary for the fertilization of test tube children, this is usually the last resort, given that the costs are considerable .
It is interesting to note that women who have reached menopause can also become mothers of test tube babies. To do this, the oocytes of a donor of reproductive age . Similarly, women who have totally or partially lost their fertility due to cancer treatment, among other pathologies that lead to violent interventions for organism They can also recover the possibility of bringing a child into the world.
For many years he doubted about the Health of test tube children compared to those of those who are conceived in an absolutely natural way. However, several research teams try to prove otherwise. In Denmark, for example, it ended in 2015 a study that carefully observed more than 90 thousand children born over two decades, in which it was determined that there are no differences in their health conditions, nor is there a greater risk of premature delivery in cases of in vitro fertilization, as their detractors also point out.
There is a long list of criteria that laboratories take into account when choosing their donors, both men and women, to make sure to reduce the likelihood of complications during Birth and the future life of test tube children to a minimum.