Proton it comes from a Greek word that means "First" . It is a subatomic particle with a positive electrical charge that, together with the neutrons , form the nucleus of the atoms . He atomic number of the proton determines the chemical properties of said atom.
The proton we have to leave a patent that was discovered in the early stages of the twentieth century by scientist Ernest Rutherford. Specifically in 1918 it was when he announced the existence of that element. However, other figures that addressed this issue are J.J. Thompson or Eugene Goldstein.
In the case of the field of Chemistry, the fact that when talking about proton is being referred to several possible elements. On the one hand, that can be the hydrogen cation and can also be used as the atomic number of protons that an atom has in question.
Protons are classified within the category of bariones (subatomic particles formed by three quarks). In the specific case of protons, they are composed of two quarks above and one quark below. Its antimatter equivalent is the antiproton or negative proton , with the same magnitude of load but opposite sign.
The action of the electromagnetic force makes the proton charge opposite and equal (in absolute value) to the charge of the electron.
The properties of protons allow the spectroscopy from nuclear magnetic resonance , a technique which consists in the application of a magnetic field to a substance to detect the existing cortex around the protons in the nucleus. From this information, the structure of the molecules studied can be reconstructed.
This type of technique is possible since the proton has a spin (intrinsic angular momentum) and, therefore, a magnetic moment. The proton also complies with the exclusion principle.
Normally we usually talk about protons and electrons at the same time, which have the characteristic that they are opposite.
Thus, in the first place, it should be stressed that protons have a series of characteristics that define and differentiate them from others. Specifically, these are: they have a positive charge, they can be found in the nucleus of the atom in question and the mass number is the fruit of adding that of protons and neutrons.
Secondly, as we mentioned earlier, electrons are presented as opposed to protons and are defined by these hallmarks: they do not have what would be a fixed position, they have a negative charge, they have a mass so small that it is basically insignificant and that makes them add to the mass ... To all this we should add the fact that they have the peculiarity that they are found in the orbitals d, f, s and p.
Nuclear physics, meanwhile, uses the protons in accelerators to attack the nuclei and produce fundamental particles.
In the field of physical and of the chemistry , the proton is the hydrogen cation. In this sense, acids are proton emitters and bases are proton receptors.