Assembly , originating in the French word assemblée, is a institution that is created from the call of a certain number of individuals who meet to to debate some issues and take a decision about them.
Constituent , on the other hand, is a term used to name the person or object (physical or symbolic) that creates, composes or determines something. There are, therefore, different types of constituents.
It is known as constituent Assembly to the institution that is specifically conceived for the creation or modification of a Constitution . It should be noted that the Constitution , also known as Magna Carta , meets the most important rules of a State .
The constituent assembly, whose members are known simply as constituents, has the power and the power to dictate or change these norms that will govern the functioning of the political and social system of a territory. The constituents are elected by the people, so a constituent assembly is an organ of democracy.
It is often said that the first constituent assembly was the one that took place in France in 1789 when the Revolution . This National Constituent Assembly remained in history not only to institute the French constitution , but also for eliminating the feudal regime and for approving the Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen .
However, we must not forget that this assembly was characterized by another important series of data interest that marked a milestone in history:
* gave rise to the realization of the Civil Constitution of the Clergy, which replaced the Concordat of 1516 and carried out the reorganization of the church of France in a profound way. The result of that was that the priests became public officials of an ecclesiastical type;
* The Assembly was made up of some 1117 representatives from the three existing States: 604 from the Third State, 295 from the clergy and 278 from the nobility ;
* many were the important figures of that moment that took part in this "institution". Specifically, among those we could highlight Honoré Gabriel Riquetti (count of Mirabeau), Marquis de La Fayette, Maximilien Robespierre, Jean-Joseph Mounier and Jacques Antoine Marie de Cazalès;
* One of the most important days of the life of this National Constituent Assembly was the night of August 4, 1789. And during that evening, feudalism was put to an end, proposed, curiously, by two nobles: Louis-Marie de Noailles and Armand Desiré de Vignerot du Plessis;
* the Picadero de las Tuileries, Versailles or the Archbishop's Palace in Paris were the three enclaves that they served as the setting developing of the sessions of this important entity in the History of France and the world;
* September 30, 1791 was the day on which the Assembly was finally dissolved.
Among the constituent assemblies that took place in recent years are the National Constituent Assembly of Venezuela (carried out in 1999 ) and the National Constituent Assembly of Ecuador (2007 ).
It is possible to distinguish between two kinds of constituent assembly:
* not institutionalized : it is conceived spontaneously, without there being a previous regulation . One of the clearest examples is found in the provinces of Upper Peru, which originated the Bolivian Republic in 1825;
* institutionalized : The same Constitution regulates and contemplates this type of assembly which, in general, is an organization born with the purpose of carrying out reforms in its texts. It is pluralistic, elective, representative, temporary and democratic in nature. This kind of constituent assembly is formed to make a particular amendment and is dissolved at the end of its objective.