The word capital It comes from the Latin capitalis, which in turn derives from the term caput ("head" ). It is, therefore, about that pertaining or relative to the head .
In Christianity, the capitals sins they are those that are the beginning (the head) of others, such as lust, gluttony, laziness, greed, anger, envy and pride.
Moreover, it is known as capital punishment or death penalty to the execution of a convicted person by the state authorities. This penalty is applied as punishment for a crime considered very serious, such as a crime with aggravating factors.
At the population level, the capital is the main city of a State , a province or a district. For example, the capital of Argentina is Buenos Aires ; the capital of Spain is Madrid ; the capital of Uruguay is Montevideo .
In the field of economy , capital is one of the productive factors (next to work and land). In general, the term is used to designate an amount of money that can be borrowed or invested: “I have a capital of 10,000 dollars to invest”, "At the moment, the capital of the company is limited to 50,000 pesos and nothing more".
Capital according to Marx
"The Capital" ("Das Kapital" , in its original language) is a book of Karl Marx dedicated to criticism of the political economy. Marx he only published the first volume of the book in life, while the other two were edited by his collaborator and friend Friedrich Engels .
Karl Marx was born in Germany on May 5, 1818 and died in the United Kingdom on March 14, 1883. He is remembered for being an essential thinker who marked a before and after in the way in which humanity understands production processes and social hierarchies. Marx worked alongside Friedrich Engels and laid the foundations of Communism; these ideas were embodied in two important books "The Capital" and "The communist manifesto".
As expressed by the German thinker in this book, the concept of capital refers to the value that is valued and explains that money in a productive process is "something" that allows its holder (the owner of the means of production) I can get more of it in future productions.
That money can be used to buy raw materials and machinery that are more suitable for greater production in less time and at the same time buy labor or in Marxist terms, work force, that is to say hire workers.
Thus, with the passage of time and reaching the time in which the acquired machinery is so worn out it is necessary to replace it , the contracts have been terminated and it is necessary to buy more raw material, the balance between the invested will be made and certain profits obtained from the production can be noted. Hence it is understood that it is a value that is revalued, because it generates more profit , therefore it is as if in itself it was worth more.
He later claimed that this capital was responsible for the existence of various social classes in a society, where a group seized the work of others (for having a greater amount of money and being able to hire them) to exploit the means of production. However, if there was a revolution where the production process had no owner, could be lived in a utopian and balanced society .
In conclusion for Marx Capital should be something that was owned by everyone, because in this way the social classes and favoritism of the rich over the poor could be eliminated. This idea is approved by many people, however, it has not been possible to put into practice because we live in a complex world and all those who try to carry the Marxism flag end up falling into the grip of ambition and abuse of power .