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It is called pharynx to tubular structure found next to the mouth , in the area of ​​the neck of the human being and the rest of the mammals. Coated with a membrane, the pharynx allows the nostrils and oral cavity to be linked to the larynx and esophagus, respectively.

Located in front of the spine, the human pharynx extends approximately thirteen centimeters, from the base of the skull to the seventh cervical vertebra. A mass of muscles It gives him support.

Through the pharynx, therefore, they pass the air And food. In this way it can be said that it is part of the respiratory system and the digestive system. A cartilaginous piece called epiglottis allows to separate both ways.

In the pharynx three sectors can be recognized. The lower pharynx , also known as laryngopharynx or hypopharynx , goes from the limit with the esophagus to below the epiglottis. The middle pharynx , oropharynx or oropharynx It develops between the epligotis and the veil of the palate. The upper pharynx , nasopharynx or rhinopharynx finally has extension from the veil of the palate to the posterior area of ​​the nasal cavity.

The pharynx intervenes in the breathing (since the air passes through it), swallowing (the food bolus enters the mouth, passes through the pharynx and continues towards the esophagus), phonation (acts as a resonator) and hearing (is attached to the auditory tube).

Between the diseases and disorders that can affect the pharynx, the pharyngitis It is one of the most usual. It happens when the mucosa surrounding the structure becomes inflamed, causing difficulties to swallow and other problems. Pharyngitis can be caused by an infection caused by a virus or bacteria or by an allergic reaction.

One of the most serious diseases in this framework is the pharyngeal cancer , which also carries three others: nasopharynx that of oropharynx and that of hypopharynx . In other words, this type of cancer speaks of several malignant tumors located at different specific points, although they all affect the throat . This occurs when tumor cells begin to spread in the tissues of the pharynx.

The first step in the emergence of any form of cancer is an abnormal mutation cell phone and its subsequent reproduction. When they mature, these cells can multiply without dying, and this explains their growth in number until the tumor forms.

Pharyngeal cancer can arise from several causes, although the World Health Organization ensures that almost half of cancer cases worldwide appear due to tobacco use, an activity that is considered to cause 90 percent of the cases that occur in the cavity oral.

Poor nutrition, based on the abuse of sugars and fats, and excessive alcohol consumption are other risk factor's for pharyngeal cancer. Regarding the symptoms, we can point out the following:

* persistent cough and sore throat;

* ear or neck pain;

* presence of bumps in the throat area where the tumor is found;

* difficulties swallowing;

* considerable weight loss due to symptom previous;

* alterations in the voice due to the advance of cancer on the tissues, to the point of producing hoarseness.

Needless to say, smoking is detrimental to Health , so everyone should make the effort to get away from this habit. Since in this case you can not say "it is never too late to leave", it is recommended to start the detoxification process as soon as possible. Improving diet, reducing alcohol consumption and exercising frequently are other useful tips to prevent pharyngeal cancer, among others.

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