The term vaccine It has different uses and applications. On the one hand, it refers to the pertaining or relative to cattle , that is, at cows . For example: “This jacket has been made with the best cow leather”, "The agricultural activity suffers the fall in the price of cattle, which has reached its minimum level in fifteen years".
On the other hand, a vaccine is an organic principle or a virus which, prepared in a certain way, is inoculated into a person or an animal to protect it against a disease determined.
A vaccine is a preparation of antigens , which is a substance that allows the formation of antibodies and that has the ability to generate an immune response within the body. Said attack response allows the development of an immunological memory that generally produces permanent immunity against the disease.
Any human being needs certain vaccines to avoid being infected with diseases or diseases of various kinds, however, the people who most require it are newborns. Thus, it is common that in the first months of life they have to be subjected to vaccine injections to avoid being infected with measles, meningitis, mumps or polio, among other problems.
In the same way it is necessary to underline the fact that in many occasions when traveling to certain areas of the globe it is necessary and essential to carry out a certain vaccination to avoid being infected and infected with diseases that are the order of the day In those places.
Thus, for example, every Spanish citizen who makes the decision to travel to South Africa will be in need of vaccination against yellow fever and malaria. While, if the destination is to Thailand, where sports are going to be practiced or where they are going to reside in rural areas, it is recommended that travelers get vaccinated against malaria and also bet on tetanus and anti-rabies vaccines.
The first vaccine in history would have been the one created by the English rural doctor Edward Jenner in 1796 , who discovered that the smallpox vaccine immunized people from suffering the human smallpox , much more serious and deadly.
Over time several vaccines were emerging to counteract diseases such as Rage (1882), the plague (1897), the tuberculosis (1927), the yellow fever (1935), the flu (1945), the measles (1964), the rubella (1970), the chickenpox (1974), the meningitis (1978) and the Hepatitis A (1992), among many others.
All this without forgetting that among the most recent vaccines, those of the 21st century, are that of the human papillomavirus that appeared in 2005, a first vaccine to end the addiction to cocaine and heroin that was given to be known in 2008 and finally in 2009 the first vaccine against the famous Influenza A. appeared.
Vaccines can be inactivated (formed by harmful microorganisms that, treated with chemicals or heat, lose their ability to harm), live attenuated (microorganisms grown under conditions that make them lose their harmful properties), toxoids (inactivated toxic components from microorganisms) and subunit (fragments of microorganisms).