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A vertebrate It is an animal that has a skeleton with spine and skull , and whose central nervous system is formed by the spinal cord and the brain . The term comes from Latin vertebratus.

Vertebrates (Vertebrata ) belong to the edge of ropes , those animals that are characterized by the presence of a dorsal cord or notocordio . Specialists estimate that there are between 50,000 and 61,000 species of chordates currently.

Vertebrate animals have had the ability to adapt to different media. Some have evolved in the sea and then passed into the terrestrial environment.

In general, the body of vertebrates can be divided into three regions: head , trunk (which, in turn, is subdivided into chest and abdomen ) and tail . On the trunk, the extremities , which are even in all vertebrates with the exception of lampreys .

Aquatic vertebrates have a gill breathing apparatus , while, in the case of terrestrial ones, the respiratory system is pulmonary .

Another important feature of vertebrates is the tegument , which is usually the most extensive organic system of the animal (completely covers it and protects it from the environment). The tegument is formed by three layers: epidermis , dermis and hypodermis .

Vertebrate skin causes epidermal formations (phane glands , sebaceous , sweaty me mammary ) and dermal formations (such as fish scales or bone plates of turtle shells, for example).

Finally, it should be noted that the endocrine system of vertebrates is controlled by the hypothalamus and the hypophysis .

Vertebrates and pain

One of the most recurring debates in recent decades is about pain in animals. Many individuals object that they do not have the ability to feel pain, like humans, and therefore have no interest in avoiding it; thus they justify prehistoric customs such as the fight and all kinds of martyrization to which they condemn other species.

It is important to note that the pain is fundamental for the survival of every individual since, through that negative experience, he must become aware of the need to react against what threatens him and seek his livelihood. The individual's reactions to that pain can be a escape or attack movement.

Pain is not always something physical, sometimes it's emotional: the death of a loved one, for example, causes an individual to feel a deep sadness that leads him to make a decision about his own existence. If an individual did not have the ability to feel pain, then he could not take care of his physical or emotional integrity and would harm himself.

On the other hand, if what is stated by science is taken into account, all individuals with a central nervous system have the ability to feel pain, it is understood that humans are not the only animals that suffer and respond to pain stimuli, but all those living beings that have a Central Nervous System. Since vertebrates are within that large group of individuals who have a nervous system with these characteristics, we can conclude by saying that all those who are part of this latter group they are endowed with this ability to feel pain and react to it.

All this leads us to say that no bull fighting is exempt from this notion of pain, which during runs they are aware that death is coming and they are extremely scared and look for the bullfighter because they are begging him for help. What do you get in return? More pain, misunderstanding and uncontrolled screams and howls. Can we continue to justify such cruelty?

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