Formulation is the process and the result of formulating (indicate, declare or externalize something; explain it with precise words). From this definition, we can understand what the concept of reformulation , even if the term is not part of the dictionary prepared by the Royal Spanish Academy (RAE ).
For this we can first observe the prefix re- , whose presence indicates that the reformulation is do something again . In other words, when a person carries out this action, he does so based on an earlier formulation, also of his own.
It can be indicated that a reformulation consists of the introduction of changes . For example, if a scientist reformulates a theory , what it does is add or remove postulates according to the new evidence that it has discovered.
The reformulation of a tournament of soccer , meanwhile, implies modifying the format of the competition. A tournament of twenty teams that play 19 games each can be reformulated to start competing forty teams, which all face against all in game and revenge.
In certain contexts, rephrasing can be said again but with others words . An Argentine can enter a store in Spain and ask for a "mobile": before the bafflement of the seller, reformulates the query and asks for a "mobile phone", since that is the concept used in Spain to refer to the device known in Argentina as "mobile".
In the latter case, we can see that reformulating does not always consist in modifying the essence of something, but it can also be a change in the way of communicating .
The reformulation is a process which offers us the possibility of transforming one message into another, so that communication is effective in any context. For this, it is not enough to know the syntax rules, but we must develop the ability to choose the words and structures appropriate to each situation, to each interlocutor, since a correct text is also one that can be understood and used .
From our student stage, we learn almost unconsciously to reformulate our words and those of others: when we try to express a idea and we go through the same phrase several times, changing words or structures, until we find the clearest version of our explanation, or when we need to summarize what another person has said, orally or in writing, we are putting into practice This essential communication skill.
The reformulation can be carried out following various strategies, one of which is the substitution . It is about presenting in another way a piece of text (which can be a sentence or a paragraph) or a whole text, without the information be altered; In other words, no data should be removed or added to the source. For this we can resort to:
* synonyms : It is the resource that we usually use to reformulate a sentence, although sometimes finding the right word is more difficult than it seems. For example, while it is correct to state that knock and beating they are synonyms, they cannot be used interchangeably in any situation;
* hyperonyms : are the terms whose meaning includes that of others, as with piece of furniture, which encompasses the concepts table, chair, armchair and wardrobe, for example;
* the pronouns : broadly speaking, these are the words that can designate a thing without naming it directly. For example, we can say that "I left the bag on the desk"It's another way of saying"I left it on the desk", provided that the context let us understand what "lo" refers to;
* paraphrase : when we don't find a synonym, a hyperonym or a pronoun that allows us to reformulate, we can always construct a phrase that has the same meaning as the original. For example, "they dug for hours"can be replaced by"they made wells for hours".