Solid and hard stones are called rocks . These are solids composed of one or more minerals. Sedimentary , on the other hand, is that related to sediments (materials that, after being suspended in a liquid, by gravity are deposited in the bottom).
It is known as sedimentary rock to the rock that formed from the gathering of sediments . These sediments are mobilized by wind or water and, after a process called diagenesis , form a material with a certain consolidation. The arrangement of sedimentary rocks in successive layers forms different strata.
The sediments can be particles that come from other rocks that, after being subjected to a process of weathering , they decompose. Sediments are transported by wind or water, they accumulate and, thanks to diagenesis, sedimentary rocks begin to form, which can be found in the earth's crust at a depth of up to ten kilometers.
For the formation of sedimentary rocks, in short, several must be developed geological processes . To weathering and erosion It is followed by sediment transport and sedimentation process, and then lead to diagenesis. Sedimentary rocks, according to their composition and their genesis, can be classified as follows:
* detritic : it is formed when demolitions (crumbling land) that erode and accumulate are deposited, because of the gravity . This type of sedimentary rock is also classified as clay, sandstone and conglomerate, according to the size of its clasts (small grains or pieces belonging to older rocks, which provide very important information about the history of a rock);
* organogenic : It is formed from organic remains, usually skeletons as a result of the biomineralization , a process through which living beings can generate inorganic solids. Another path for its formation is the evolution of cellular matter, and in this case we talk about organic rock (A clear example is the carbon );
* chemistry : This type of sedimentary rock is also known as chemical precipitation and born from the deposit of dissolved substances. Most come from masses of salts that have accumulated because the Water marine has been supersaturated or stagnant, which causes it to evaporate and causes the precipitation of dissolved minerals, so that known rocks appear with the name of evaporites how to be the salt gem and the cast;
* marga : it is about the combination of chemical and detritic rocks.
Another possible classification is established according to its composition , and so we speak of sedimentary rock terrifying (conglomerate, clay, silt, sandstone, etc.), carbonated (dolomite, limestone, crete, etc.), siliceous (kaolin, radiolarite, diatomite, chalcedony, etc.) and organic (oil, coal, etc.), among others.
Scientists indicate that the surface of the land It is covered in more than one 75% by sedimentary rocks, which are at the bottom of the oceans, lakes and valleys and at the mouths and banks of the rivers, for example.
Sediment has different characteristics according to the way in which sedimentation takes place, among other reasons. He means, medium In which this process occurs, it has a series of physical-chemical conditions, which are decisive for the deposition of chemical sediments and the formation of organic sediments, which originate from the remains of certain organisms. There are two major classifications of sedimentary environments: continental , where we find the glacier and the desert, among others; the sailors , where are the neritic, the artisan, the batial and the abyssal.